Rural-Urban Migration: Causes Challenges and Social Transformations

Rabia Ali, Muhammad Ali & Syyam Jabeen

Abstract

Migration involves a number of social, economic and cultural changes. This study was conducted to explore the social changes associated with migration including changes in social norms of individuals. The study also examined the causes of rural-urban migration and the problems faced by migrants after migration. This research was conducted under a quantitative research design by using systematic sampling technique. The population for the study constituted of 63 heads of the family. The findings indicate that the major push factors for rural-urban migration were identified as lack of educational and health facilities and lack of employment opportunities while the pull factors were search for better employment and educational opportunities. Some of the problems encountered by the respondents included; getting adjusted in the new culture and environment, bearing higher costs of living and problems in findings employment. The findings highlight change in social norms of migrants including; change in verbal communication and speaking style, eating habits, dressing patterns and religious practices of individuals. These findings illustrate that migration has implications for social transformation of societies.

 Keywords:Migration, Change, Social norms, Problems

Permanent link to this article: http://jssh.aiou.edu.pk/?p=771

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