Conquest of Constantinople May 29, 1453: Evolution of Islamic Civilization

Abdul Basit Mujahid & Abdul Zahoor Khan



Many empires and rulers had envisioned the conquest of Constantinople. Muslim empires such as Arabs and Ottomans had started series of campaigns to establish political power over the capital city of Eastern Roman Empire. Many historical accounts and travel logs have been written down about Constantinople throughout centuries in various parts of world. Ottomans historical literature provided extensive knowledge about causes and policies of Muslim Turks for the conquest of Constantinople. This Muslim dream of the conquest of Constantinople reached its climax with the growth of the Ottoman Turks, realized by Mehmed II (r.1444-1446/1451-1480) who was an extraordinary military man with expert skills. Sultan Mehmed II was the seventh ruler of Ottoman Empire, son of Sultan Murad II. He was born on 30th March 1432 in Edirne. He became sultan twice, first at the age of twelve for a short time (1444-1446) when his father abandoned the politics of court. After his father died he became the ruler in February 1451. On 29th May 1453, after fifty-three days of siege and warfare techniques, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople. Due to his success at the age of twenty-one in the conquest of Constantinople, he was known as Mehmed the Conqueror/ Mehmed al fatih. He fought many other wars and consolidated the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mehmed II died on 3rd May 1481 at the age of forty-nine. The conquest of Constantinople marked the end of the Middle Ages in Europe.

Keywords: Eastern Roman Empire, Constantinople, Conquest, Mehed II, Middle Ages, Consolidation

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